Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend Series Joint Event 2
International Conferences on Design and Production Engineering
&
Mechatronics, Automation and Smart Materials Paris, France.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Omar S Es-Said

Loyola Marymount University, USA

Keynote: Evaluation for long-term structural shading materials for use in harsh environments

Time : 09:20-09:50

OMICS International Mechatronics 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Omar S Es-Said photo
Biography:

Omar S Es-Said is a Professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department at Loyola Marymount University in LA, California. He was a full Professor from 1998 to present. He received his PhD in Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science from the University of Kentucky, Lexington in 1985. His current research interests include metallic processing and modeling. He published over 300 papers. He has been an Associate Editor from 2008 to present for the Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. He received several grants and awards for research funds for a total of over $3.6 million. He was a consultant for the Navy from 1994-2015 and a fellow of the American Society of Materials in 2005.
 

Abstract:

This paper evaluated the performance and durability of leading structural shading materials to be used in the Super Containerized Living Units (Super-CLU’s) project. Fift een unique shading fabrics were tested in fi ve diff erent experiments in order to evaluate their strength, resistance to wind, abrasion, and heat and to assess their heat transmissivity and breathability. A current United States Navy material was used as a control material for the evaluation of the other tested materials. Samples of each fabric were fi rst tensile tested in both their warp and weft  orientation to create an ‘as-received’ baseline condition. Th en, additional samples of each fabric were exposed to wind, abrasion, or heat and subsequently tensile tested to observe the change in tensile strength compared to the ‘as-received’ samples. Th e heat transmissivity and breathability testing was conducted separately

OMICS International Mechatronics 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Augustin Gakwaya  photo
Biography:

Augustin Gakwaya is a Professor of Computational Mechanics and Computer Aided Design and Engineering in the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Université Laval for more than 25 years. He also works as graduate program Director for master of aerospace engineering. He is a Mechanical/Aerospace Engineer, specialized in material modeling and non-linear computational coupled thermo-mechanics, optimization of metal forming process (powder metallurgy, deep drawing, forging, extrusion), shell elements for non-linear implicit and explicit FE and meshless (SPH) modeling and technology, evaluation/selection of materials, inverse modeling and identifi cation of material models, integrated forming process modeling and virtual production systems, durability and structural integrity of aerospace composites structures under shock and impact loading. In last fi ve years he successfully lead multi-partners research projects related to: High velocity impact modeling of composites aircraft structures (bird strike, hail impact, ballistic limits), Integrated computational materials engineering for design, process optimization and virtual manufacturing of aerospace components.
 

Abstract:

In this work, a new helicopter skid landing gear cross beam is presented. Th anks to a revisited design, this part can be easily fabricated by tube hydroforming. Th e strength and energy absorption during emergency landing are the same for the new crosstube and for the actual crossbeam, but the new design is lighter. Th e manufacturing process is also “greener” and more cost-eff ective than the chemical milling process currently in use. For a better assessment of the structural integrity of the aerospace components, a methodology based on the integrated computational material science and engineering (ICME) technology for the multistage manufacturing processes of a helicopter skid landing gear component is used. Simulations of the manufacturing sequence and drop test are performed in an integrated manner. Th e tube is fi rst bent, then crushed and hydroformed. Aft er hydroforming, the tube has to be heat treated to bring the material into an artifi cially aged condition. Th e fi nal material properties depend on the amount of plastic strain experienced by the material during the forming processes, which varies from one part of the tube to another. Th is is taken into consideration for the simulations of drop tests and quasistatic loading of the part. Results from the simulations are compared to experimental results for bending, hydroforming, and quasi-static loading. By combining targeted physical testing with advanced materials and process modeling, the product design and manufacturing process can be optimized together at the early stages where cost of design changes is much lower. A better understanding of what happens to the material during the various processes and how to improve them can thus be achieved and the design engineers are enabled to optimize the component while maintaining security margins.
 

Keynote Forum

Yun Li

Dongguan University of Technology, China

Keynote: Intelligent design and creativity for smart manufacturing

Time : 10:20-10:50

OMICS International Mechatronics 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Yun Li  photo
Biography:

Yun Li is currently a Professor at Dongguan University of Technology, China. He received his PhD in parallel computing and control from University of Strathclyde, UK, in 1990. During 1989 and 1990, he was with UK National Engineering Laboratory, East Kilbride, and Industrial Systems and Control Ltd, Glasgow. He joined the University of Glasgow as Lecturer in 1991 and served as Founding Director of University of Glasgow Singapore during 2011-2013. He developed one of the world’s fi rst 30 EC course in 1995 and the popular online interactive courseware GA Demo in 1997. In 1998, he established and chaired both the IEEE Computer-Aided Control System Design Evolutionary Computation Working Group and the European Network of Excellence in Evolutionary Computing (EvoNet) Workgroup on Systems, Control, and Drives for Industry. He has over 200 publications, one of which is elected by Thomson Reuters to “Research Front in Computer Science”, one to “Research Front in Engineering”, four to “Essential Science Indicators” (ESI), and two have been noted the most popular in IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology and the most cited in IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics – Part B: Cybernetics since their publications in 2005 and 2009, respectively. He is a Chartered Engineer in UK and is currently an Associated Editor of IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation and Guest Editor of Smart Design, Smart Manufacture and Industry 4.0 Special Issue for Energies.
 

Abstract:

Smart manufacturing is now more and more associated with Industry 4.0 (i4), which stands for the fourth, and the fi rst a-priori engineered, ‘Industrial (R)evolution’. It refers to the industrial value chain and technological evolution upgrading the factory fl oor to a be-spoke mass innovation centre. It is associated with the concepts of customized mass production, smart manufacturing, smart factory, autonomous manufacturing, networked embedded systems, cyber-physical systems, industrial internet, and internet of everything. Th is talk will explore critical insight into the global perspective in relation to artifi cial intelligence. For Industry 4.0, multi-national companies such as Siemens are already making a leading eff ort in the vertical integration to network machinery, control systems and sensors together, so that, all the data from the production process can be used to make decisions on manufacturing. Upgrading the entire manufacturing value chain at the dawn of Industry 4.0 has led to a global race in innovation, design, and creativity for smart manufacturing and smart products through life. Th rough computational intelligence, the talk focuses on how to utilize artifi cial evolution to achieve manufacturing-ready smart designs with increased innovation and creativity for enhanced competitiveness. Th e talk will conclude with a summary of challenges, opportunities and future directions presented by Industry 4.0 and how we may best capitalize on them in China-Europe research cooperation.
 

  • Special Session
Location: Amphitheater

Session Introduction

Colm M O’Kane and Robert Tully

Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland

Title: Producing designers - development of DIT’s cross-disciplinary product design programme

Time : 11:10-11:50

Biography:

Colm O’Kane is a senior lecturer at Dublin Institute of Technology, chair of Product Design at DIT and a former College Teaching Fellow.  His research interests span the creative and engineering design fi elds and he has been principal investigator on several Enterprise Ireland-funded commercialization projects.  Colm has also consulted on a number of major design engineering projects in a variety of sectors including energy systems, new product development and design for manufacture.
 
Robert Tully is a senior lecturer at Dublin Institute of Technology. He lectures on programmes in the areas of design and creativity across three colleges of the Institute. His current academic research focus is on innovation in teaching methods and on cross and multi-disciplinary collaboration for learning enhancement. Robert has directed and participated in a number of EU development projects in innovation and creativity with both industry and educational partners. Robert is also a practicing designer working with manufacturing companies in Ireland, UK and Italy.
 

 

Abstract:

In an industrial setting, understanding of the processes associated with developing new products for launch into markets can oft en be segmented.  As a consequence, the education of new designers and innovators who can develop new product and service interventions to meet society’s challenges in the 21st century is a complex task.  In many cases, programmes are successful in educating students in one or several aspects of the product development chain but not across the entire cycle. Design itself lies at the intersection of technology, art and science. DIT’s Product Design B.Sc. (Hons) programme was developed to refl ect this reality and has continually evolved since its launch into a successful model for cross disciplinary undergraduate education. Th e programme was uniquely designed to operate across three distinct Colleges (Engineering, Creative Arts and Business) within Dublin Institute of Technology.  Its key objective is to give students a fi rm grounding in these three areas and to produce graduates capable of understanding and executing all stages of the design process with a distinct focus on producing products and interventions which are technically feasible, consumer appropriate and commercially credible. While still a relatively new programme, it has continued to innovate in both structure and pedagogy to ensure a clear focus on the needs of society and of industry. Projects have been developed which aim at inspiring students to work more closely with the design and manufacturing industries. 2017 will see the tenth year of graduates emerge from DIT’s Product Design programme and in this time, students of the programme have repeatedly won awards in a wide variety of design areas including creative, technical and business innovation, while graduates have gone on to successful careers in a number of fi elds and industry sectors. Th e authors believe that the model employed in this programme could be fruitfully applied to the development of cross-disciplinary programmes in a variety of levels and sectors.
 

Agamenon R E Oliveira

Polytechnic School of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Title: Coulomb´s memoir on human-machine interaction

Time : 11:50-12:30

Speaker
Biography:

Agamenon R E Oliveira has his expertise in mechanical engineering, mainly solid mechanics and in the last ten years in History of Mechanics. He is DSc in Mechanical Engineering (1982) as well as DSc in History of Sciences and Technology (2006), both by COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He published 80 papers and one book: History of the work concept- from physics to economics, by Springer (2013). He is member of IFToMM (International Federation for the promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science) and of SBHC (Brazilian Society of History of Sciences). He is also Professor of Mechanics and History of Technology at Polytechnic School of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Abstract:

Coulomb´s memoir “On the Men´s Force” is an attempt to understand human work mechanically and is the fi rst publication on physiology and ergonomics. Historically, the approach used by Coulomb to study the problem of fatigue with a mechanical model has an important meaning that is to consider the old question of how to measure human capacity to do a day’s work. His basic concern was to measure mean values of work in a day and not maximum or minimum values. In other words, Coulomb was looking for an actual measurement of work in a regular day’s work. In 1821, Coulomb’s mechanical studies were published, including the memoir “On the Men´s Force”. By introducing the question of human work as a machine operation, it was possible to study the work carried out by a machine economically. Th is double analogy created the conditions to construct the concepts of net-work and global work applied to a given machine in order to measure its effi  ciency, costs, energy consumption, etc., providing the necessary theoretical tools to compare two diff erent machines. “On the Men´s Force” should be considered a pioneering work in modern biomechanics, notwithstanding the many studies since antiquity, mainly addressed at the development of robotics in which it is attempted to reproduce the movement of animals and man. What in fact makes the diff erence in Coulomb’s memoir is the application of the concept of quantity of action (later called work) to obtain a mathematical model using the new tools of Rational Mechanics and diff erential calculus.
 

  • Design Engineering | Manufacturing Innovations| Materials Science | Production Engineering | Manufacturing Automation
Location: Amphitheater
Speaker

Chair

Omar S Es-Sai

Loyola Marymount University, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Augustin Gakwaya

University Laval, Canada

Session Introduction

Nazim Mir-Nasiri

Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan

Title: Human - exoskeleton interaction via tactile sensors for the motion assistance

Time : 13:40-14:05

Speaker
Biography:

Nazim Mir-Nasiri has obtained his PhD in Technical Sciences from Azerbaijan Technical University in 1989. Later he has built up his career in Malaysia as Head of Mechatronics Department at IIU Malaysia. From 2005 to 2013 he was holding a position of Professor and Head of Robotics and Mechatronics Program at the Swinburne University of Technology (branch of Australian University in Malaysia). Currently he holds a position of Professor and Head of Electrical and Electronic Engineering program at Nazarbayev University in Kazakhstan. He has published about 80 scientific papers in robotic design and control, machine vision, intelligent systems, design of mechanisms. He has received several awards at the International Competitions. In 2016 he has received NU Research Grant (USD 300,000). He is the member of IEEE for ten years and member of IMechE and UK Charted Engineer, Editorial Board Member of the “International Journal of Mechatronics and Automation” and “International Journal of Automation and Computing”.

Abstract:

The paper describes conceptual design and control of a new fully autonomous lower limb exoskeleton system via a number of tactile sensors. The aim of the exoskeleton is to support the subject weight and provide an additional strength and endurance for the subject. The designed exoskeleton can decouple the weight/mass carrying function of the subject/human from its forward motion function. This newly proposed approach effectively reduces the power and size of propulsion motors and thus the overall weight, cost of the system. The interaction between the system and subject takes place by means of two types of sensors. The system measures the pressure applied by the subject’s feet on the ground. If the pressure exceeds the set value the system blocks the motion at the knee joint by means of a passive air cylinder across the knee joint. This data is used by the PID controller to force the exoskeleton to follow precisely the motion of the subject legs in swinging motion by means of hip and knee motors. The mechanical structure of each leg has six degrees of freedom: four at the hip, one at the knee and one at the ankle. Only one degree at the hip and one at the knee are motor driven. In Fig. 1: 1 is a seat; 2 and 3 are hip and knee motors; 4 is an ankle join; 5 and 6 are bars to support the electronics and power supply;7 are leg belts; 8 is a hip lateral motion mechanism; 9 is an air cylinder.This exoskeleton is power efficient because the system motors are not used to support the subject weight like in most of the existing exoskeleton designs.

Jr-Rung Chen

Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan

Title: Design and development of a step-gauge calibration system

Time : 14:05-14:30

Biography:

Jr-Rung Chen has completed his PhD from the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology. At present, he works at the Center for Measurement Standards of the Industrial Technology Research Institute. He has majored in three-dimensional metrology, precision engineering, and mechatronics.

Abstract:

A step-gauge, consisting of several short gauge blocks fixed on a base, is widely used in the calibration of machine tools and co-ordinate measuring machines (CMMs). The step-gauge calibration system is developed by comprising a laser interferometer and a CMM. The laser interferometer was used as the standard for traceability of length measurement and designed as a two-path interferometer system to decrease the Abbe error, and then integrated with the high-precision CMM, consisting of the moving platform and probing system to implement the calibration procedure for step gauge.

Biography:

Maria Giulia Faga is a Researcher of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR). Her research activity ranges from physico-chemical study of catalysts to the functionalization of massive materials (oxidic composites) for biomedical applications to the study of tribological and surface properties of wear resistant thin films for cutting tools. At present, she is responsible for the institute activity “Machining and characterization of materials for mechanical, wear resistance and biomedical applications” and responsible of the laboratories for mechanical and tribological properties of thin layers and bulk materials. Her research interests include the following laboratory skills: wear and mechanical characterisation of materials (tribometer, scratch test, durometers); microstructural (SEM-EDS) and spectroscopic (Raman, FTIR, UV-Vis, XRD) analysis. She cooperates mainly with the Chemistry group of University of Turin, the Materials and Machining Departments and the Department of Management and Production Engineering of Polytechnic of Turin. 

Abstract:

Ceramic materials are widespread employed in biomedical application thanks to high strength and wear resistance. Among them, tetragonal ZrO2 shows bioactivity properties, although phase transition towards the monoclinic phase makes it unsuitable for biomedical applications. The problem has been solved by using ZrO2-Al2O3 composites, for which limited or absent phase transition is observed. However, similar biomaterials still present mechanical properties far to those of hard tissues. A possible strategy to overcome this issue is represented by the dispersion of alumina-zirconia composites in a polymer matrix. In such way it could be possible to obtain an implant easy to be processed, inexpensive, with suitable mechanical properties and good cells interaction. Polymer composites have also the advantage of a contrast adjustable radio-transparency and are compatible with modern diagnostic methods. In this work, different amounts of Alumina Toughened Zirconia (80–20 wt %) (ATZ) have been added to Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE). The UHMWPE/ATZ composites were prepared by solid state mixing, using a homogenizer, followed by compression molding. The structural, morphological, thermal, mechanical characterization and cells interaction of ATZ-UHMWPE are reported for the first time in order to assess the feasibility of these materials for biomedical tissue reconstruction.

In PE2.5 composite, ATZ particles are uniformly distributed along the ‘‘grain’’ boundaries, whereas at higher concentrations (10 and 20 wt %) they form micrometric agglomerates. The PE2.5 composite has improved elastic modulus and yield stress respect to bare UHMWPE. For all the other composites, an increase in the elastic modulus respect to neat UHMWPE is observed, although the other mechanical parameters are reduced by increasing ATZ content. The results can be explained in terms of poor dispersion of the oxide in the polymer matrix at concentrations higher than 2.5 wt %. Furthermore, the good dispersion of ATZ seems to positively affect the cells adhesion and protein adsorption (using Bovine Serum Albumin, BSA).

Miroslav Raudensky

Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic

Title: Flexible heat exchangers with polymeric hollow fibers
Biography:

Miroslav Raudensky is a Professor at Brno University of Technology. He is author or co-author of over 200 technical and research reports mainly for mechanical engineering and metallurgical industry. His main research interest is in experimental study of heat transfer, especially for high temperature and micro surface application. He has published over 70 papers in that field. 

Abstract:

Polymeric hollow fiber heat exchangers were proposed about decade ago as an alternative to metal exchangers for low temperature application. Design of classical metal heat exchangers is limited by production technology. Majority of metal heat exchangers are of rectangular shape and the use of polymeric flexible materials brings new chance of production of light heat exchangers with almost arbitrary shapes. Two types of polymeric heat exchangers can be distinguished: The first is in the shape of chaotic bundle (Fig. 1) and the second is design with regularly separated heat transfer capillary (Fig. 2). Flexible polymeric hollow fiber heat exchangers were prepared and tested for liquid / air and liquid / liquid conditions. These heat exchangers use plastic capillary with outer diameter 0.5 - 0.8 mm and wall thickness 10% of outer diameter. These heat exchangers are flexible and can be used in narrow slots and in shaped channels. Experimentally obtained overall heat-transfer coefficients in water/air applications are up to 900 W/m2 K. These heat exchangers are effective even in natural convection application where advantage of high heat transfer coefficient on micro surfaces is used. The use of plastic and non-corrosive materials is advantageous in applications where weight of heat exchanger is important (about 50% reduction of weight in comparison to classical metal products) and in difficult chemical environment. The paper present results of laboratory tests of the developed prototypes of polymeric hollow fiber heat transfer surfaces of variety of designs.

Mahmut Ekşioglu

Bogaziçi University, Turkey

Title: Ergonomics in design: Safety and user experience factors

Time : 15:20-15:45

Biography:

Mahmut Ekşioğlu is currently a Professor of Industrial Engineering and Director of Ergonomics Laboratory at Boğaziçi University. He received his PhD in Industrial Engineering and MS degrees in Industrial and Aerospace Engineering all in the US and a BS degree in Mechanical Engineering in Turkey. His area of expertise is in Ergonomics/Human Factors Engineering and he has been working in this area since 1992 as an Instructor, Researcher and Consultant both in the US and Turkey. He published over 70 articles in SCI journals and conference proceedings as well as several book chapters and developed an ergonomics assessment tool. He is also the inventor of the patented Turkish E-Keyboard which is a Turkish Standard. He has memberships in several international professional societies.

Abstract:

Product/system design and development requires an interdisciplinary approach considering the lifecycles of products/systems. Traditionally, designers focus on functionality and perhaps economic aspects of the products/systems. However, safety of a product/system is also a very important factor that should be considered by the designers and modern engineers are required for this. Human life and health may be at stake and indeed, it is a liability issue as well. Most accident analysis reports indicate that accidents are related to human errors. However, careful analyses of such incidents reveal the real cause: Most of the accidents are due to equipment failure or design error. That is, human errors mostly originate from poor designs and for the case of user experience: the product should be useful, usable, findable, credible, desirable, accessible and valuable. The design stage offers the greatest opportunity and most cost-effective time to anticipate, analyze, eliminate, or control hazards, and examine and include the user experience aspects. Ergonomics is an applied science and engineering discipline concerned with these. In this paper, a critical examination of safety and user experience principles of product/system design and development is examined with examples from ergonomics perspective.

 

Olga Kamynina

ISMAN, Russia

Title: Design of Ti- and Ta-based materials by SHS

Time : 16:05-16:30

Biography:

Olga Kamynina, PhD Chemical Physics, is currently a Secretary for science at the Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences (Chernogolovka, Moscow region). Her areas of interest include: Dynamics of phase and structure transformations during high-temperature processes in micro-heterogeneous systems; Mechanisms of combustion wave propagation in micro-heterogeneous media; Combustion synthesis of advanced materials; Product structure formation in conditions of combustion and thermal explosion; Influence of micro-gravity on combustion (SHS experiments in ISS); Dynamics and mechanisms of pore formation; New SHS-produced porous biomaterials.

Abstract:

Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), or synthesis by combustion, is based on exothermic reactions between the elements and/or compounds. This technique is advantageous over existing processes by (i) no need for external energy supply, (ii) high reaction rates, and (iii) simplicity of facilities. SHS can be carried out in the mode of either layer-by-layer combustion or thermal explosion (volume reaction). The applicability of SHS method to fabrication of materials with desired properties was demonstrated in [1-4]. In this communication, I will report on some recent results on the combustion synthesis of Ti- and Ta-based materials. Due to unique combination of their properties, such materials are widely used in industry as structural and functional materials. This work aimed at exploring the feasibility of preparation of Ti–Al–Ta alloys from the elements in a mode of thermal explosion. In experiments, we studied the influence of the size/morphology of powders and mechanical activation of the powders on reaction mechanism and product patterning. Another goal was the deposition of multilayer ceramic Ti–C–Si coatings onto Ti and Ta substrates. Ti-Al-Ta-based alloys can be synthesized by thermal explosion without introduction of non-metal additives into the green mixture. SHS method can be readily applied to deposition of multilayer ceramic coatings onto a Ti and Ta substrate, without use of low-melting metal (intermediate layers). The use of SHS reactions for the purpose was found rather promising.

Biography:

Kadiata Ba is a professor in mechanical engineering at the Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, in Québec Canada.

Abstract:

In the aerospace industry, parts requiring tight dimensional tolerances and very high mechanical properties are often produced by forging. This forming process allows for an optimal use of the material and can produce high quality parts at a reasonable cost. Thanks to CAD techniques, it is now easier to predict flow profiles and in-process defects occurrence as well as wear of the forging dies. However, in order to determine the properties of the forged part with computer simulation methods, a good material constitutive law is a prerequisite. This paper presents a virtual manufacturing process modeling for the closed die forging of a workpiece performed with Abaqus. The hot closed die forging is a regular process applied to manufacture metallic components used in aerospace industry. In this forming process, the material flow and final properties depend on the microstructure evolution during the process that is why it is important to include the microstructure effects in the material model. Based on the stress-strain data measured experimentally, the material parameters of the standard (classical) Johnson-Cook constitutive model and of a modified Johnson-Cook constitutive law including the microstructure effects have been determined. The obtained simulation results are compared with the experimental results for validation.

Dejan Šeatović

Dejan Šeatović, University of Applied Sciences, Germany

Title: Let machines do the work!

Time : 16:55-17:20

Biography:

Dejan Šeatović is an experienced Engineer and Scientist with strong focus on intelligent systems. Has led in numerous industrial and research projects which have shaped his competences in areas of software engineering, mechatronics, remote sensing, ranging and computer vision. His mission is to understand the end-user requirements and wishes in order to steer the research and development towards usable and reliable intelligent systems. His professional career started at Leica Geosystems AG, Switzerland and continued in the academic environment, where he is at present and effectively connects both worlds.

Abstract:

Within the last decade the performance of spatial data acquisition devices has increased to a level where, in a split second, several gigabytes of observation data can be acquired at once. With the increased performance of sensors, processing time and complexity of large amounts of data have increased as well. The employment of the human work force for data processing and analysis is expensive, and has limited capabilities. To transform data to information, automation procedures for segmentation, labeling and interpretation of acquired data are necessary to support human decision makers in generalization and information classification. Recent progress in machine learning, especially convolutional neural networks, the window of opportunity has been opened for assisting systems: They have chance to become more reliable and robust without additional implementation efforts. These new assisting systems are able to perform tasks which were reserved for trained human labor. Following two use cases should be considered: a) an intelligent and autonomous catheter, guided by highly accurate and reliable sensor-actor control system should be able to perform TAVI operations on a patient. b) An autonomous robot equipped with 3-D and multispectral sensing performs weed detection and treatment 24/7 without significant human assistance. These systems have great potential as products, though there are still various hurdles to be taken. Apparently, the state-of-the art deep learning methods can solve many of the challenges: They are able to crunch a large amount of data, extract useful information, and make decisions autonomously. At present these methods rely on very large amount of data that is required for their training. The crucial question is: Is there an efficient solution to improve the performance of intelligent systems with more accurate and reliable sensors? Reducing the noise in the measurements enables more efficient and precise modelling of the data, thus shorter training process. Is it that simple? Two use cases mentioned above were major goals in several successful research projects, their results allow interesting discussion.

  • Young Researchers Forum
Location: Amphitheater

Session Introduction

Yogang Singh

University of Plymouth, UK

Title: USV navigation in a real-time map using intelligent path planner

Time : 17:20-17:35

Biography:

Yogang Singh joined Plymouth University, UK as a Commonwealth Scholar in PhD programme under School of Engineering in 2015. He has more than 6 years of research experience in area of CFD and Marine Robotics with a particular interest in Hydrodynamics. He has built an in house underwater glider at IIT Madras, Chennai (India) where he completed his MS (by research) in 2015. Prior to that, he worked as Research Assistant in Government of India projects for a period of two years. At present, he is working on developing path planning algorithms for Swarm of Surface USV. His goal is to combine CFD techniques in conjugation with real time operation of marine robots such as underwater vehicles and submarines.

Abstract:

Unmanned surface vehicles (USV) are the recent trend in marine robotics due to their diverse application and easy deployment. Navigation of such USV in a real time marine environment is a major challenge and creates a need towards development of intelligent path planners which can increase the system autonomy. Many such intelligent path planning studies have been conducted in the area of mobile robotics but needs a lot more research to be conducted in area of marine robotics. In this study, a well-known intelligent path planner A* has been implemented in a real time map using safety distance from obstacle as the criteria towards generating optimal trajectory for a single USV navigation. Different safety distances from obstacles ranging from 10 pixels to 40 pixels have been used to generate optimal trajectory and comparative performance has been analyzed in terms of computational time and path length. In this study, Portsmouth Harbour has been considered as area of study to determine the effectiveness of A* algorithm with different safety distance from obstacle as constraint. Algorithm has been validated on computer-based simulations using C++ and OpenCV libraries.

Farzad Hemmati

Farzad Hemmati, University of British Columbia, Canada

Title: Constrained design optimization using MATLAB & ANSYS: Assessment of accuracy & Hessian matrix assumptions

Time : 17:35-17:50

Biography:

Farzad Hemmati has his research mainly focused on dynamic characteristic problems of high-speed turbomachinery. Continuous online monitoring is necessary to assess health conditions, to enable early detection of operation problems and to reduce possibility of downtime. Destructive excessive vibrations in rotor supported oil film journal bearing systems are mainly caused by misalignment, unbalance, and oil-induced instability phenomenon known as whirl. In many of the published works, the predictions of the instability threshold speed and dynamic response of the rotor supported by fluid-film journal bearings are based on the linearized stiffness and damping coefficients. Nevertheless, the fluid forces generated in fluid-film journal bearings are highly nonlinear so that bifurcation exists around the instability threshold speed.

Abstract:

In this paper, a nonlinear constrained optimization problem is solved using MATAB’s Optimization Toolbox and ANSYS APDL’s Design Optimization. The objective is to investigate the accuracy of both methods and to assess the assumptions used in approximating the Hessian matrix in each case. The sequential quadratic programming (SQP) technique is applied through MATLAB and a subproblem approximation method using the sequential unconstrained minimization technique (SUMT) through APDL. SQP linearizes the constraints and solves the QP subproblem to form a line search to decrease the descent function whereas in SUMT the constrained problem is converted to an unconstrained problem using a transformation that applies a penalty function in place of the constraints. Comparing the two techniques it was found, based on the results that the sub problem approximation method from APDL proved more accurate since the optimum solution was a global minimum, whereas in MATLAB a local minimum result was obtained. The treatment of the Hessian matrix by the two techniques was studied in order to understand its effect on the results; the SQP method utilizes a quasi-Newtonian method, the BFGS method, to approximate the Hessian matrix while in APDL, no approximation is made since the subproblem approximation method is a zero-order method. 

Biography:

Xingyuan Wang is major in precision instruments and machinery. He is devoted to the assembly of small precision interference fitting parts and assembly quality estimation. His theoretical model for prediction of press-mounting force and stress distribution based on thick-walled cylinder theory provides a standard for quality estimation.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Interference fit is widely used in many industrial fields for its high ability to transmit an axial force or torque between a shaft and hub. Thick-walled cylinder theory (TCT) is the main tool for analysis and design of interference fit. After many researches, theoretical methods based on TCT were more abundant and perfect, which can be adopted for complex structures and different operating conditions. However, the current theoretical system still has some shortcomings, such as the influence of non-contact regions on stress distribution and press-mounting force. Since the stress distribution and press-mounting force in the assembly process are significant for analysis of contact surface wear and assembly quality estimation, the purpose of this study is to build a new theoretical model to predict the stress distribution and press-mounting force.

Methodology: A simplified model was proposed by dividing the geometric model into three parts: contact region, non-contact regions of shaft and hub respectively. Then, the press-mounting force was calculated by the combination of the friction force generated by contact region and a resistant force generated by non-contact regions. The stress distribution equation was also deduced based on a simplified model that a non-uniform linear load acts on a portion of the semi-infinite plane.

Results: The theoretical results of press-mounting force were consistent with simulation results and validated by experiments. The prediction results of stress distribution were also compared with simulation results which indicate that the new theoretical model has high accuracy in stress distribution prediction.

Conclusion & Significance: The new theoretical model can give more accurate and reasonable results and provide a more reliable approach for designing of interference fits. Furthermore, this model also provides a method for improvement of the analytical method of interference fits under different structures and operating conditions..